Thursday, 17 January, 2019

Japan

Beginning in 1999, the Government of Japan provides  the Republic of Kazakhstan by technical assistance to the continuation and improvement of seismic monitoring for seismic protection and seismic hazard assessment in Almaty: the Institute received a modern seismological equipment to register strong motion, digital seismic stations, apparatus for the study of modern movements using GPS, computer equipment, software, processing and interpretation. Institute specialists are trained in Japan, trained in modern technologies of processing seismic data.

In 1997 and 1999 the Institute conducted in collaboration with scientists from Germany, Italy, Ukraine and Russia the research program INCO-COPERNICUS on "The relationship between various parameters and seismicity in areas of high and low seismic risk."

In the frame of collaboration with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA),  the project "Continuation and improvement of seismic monitoring for seismic protection and seismic hazard assessment in the Almaty region of Kazakhstan"  was carried out in  the Institute of Seismology.  The main direction of  technical cooperation was the development  a network of GPS - observations for accurate positioning points on the earth surface in order to study the processes of earthquake preparation and reduction of seismic risk.


In Kazakhstan in the project were:

· Ministry of Foreign Affairs

· The Ministry of Economy and Budget Planning

· The Ministry of Education and Science

· Agency for Emergencies

· National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan

· Institute of Seismology, RK

· Experimental and Methodical Seismological Expedition RK


On the Japanese side:

· Embassy of Japan in the Republic of Kazakhstan

· Japanese Agency for International Cooperation

· The University of Tokyo

· International Institute of Earthquake Engineering Research Institute of the Ministry of Construction in Japan

· Training Center training in g.Ttsukuba

The total funding of the project was $ 1.2 million.

Previous system GPS - observations operated since 1992, it was attended by 70 points in the regional network. Own equipment for measurement technology GPS missing. Network scanning is held every year on the methods proposed NA ICT Sciences (Bishkek). There were no manufacturing software systems and the required hardware processing of the primary observations. If you are familiar to build maps of horizontal displacement calculations and mapping of deformation processes on the basis of the observed data did not include any skills to study dynamic processes of the earth's crust with modern movements.

In the frame of  this cooperation program the Japanese side  has transferred to: 4 sets of field equipment together with the necessary technical equipment for ground-based high-precision technology GPS, a set of technical means for processing field data and GPS data processing software. In addition several staff members of our institute are trained technique of field observations and laboratory data processing technology GPS-observations. The local GPS network  has been organized  near the city of Almaty.

Due to the project, the following results has been achieved: experts mastered the technology of making observations in the field, the primary data and the subsequent analysis of the results and to study the dynamic processes the earth's crust, improved evaluation of the geodynamic of the crust and the formation of focal zones of earthquakes series of lectures on the use of GPS - observations in Japan.

Results of the Kazakh-Japanese project "Extension and improvement of seismic monitoring for seismic protection and seismic hazard assessment in the city of Almaty Republic of Kazakhstan"

In Kazakhstan, the earthquake - one of natural disasters that threaten public safety and the economic potential of the country. Over the past 100-120 years happened here nine devastating earthquakes, three of them were in the category of world catastrophes (Verny, 1887; Chilik, 1889 Kemin, 1911), they have destroyed almost all the buildings in the city of Almaty and the surrounding villages, people died.

According to the results of scientific research of the Institute of Seismology, two zones are identified in the central part of the Northern Tien Shan, within which the probability of occurrence of earthquakes with a magnitude of 6 is large enough.

The calculations show that the occurrence of a devastating earthquake near the city of Almaty can lead to more than 80% of the buildings will be demolished and the victims of the disaster will be about 300 thousand people.

In 2000, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Institute of Seismology of the Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan made a mini-project: "The continuation and improvement of seismic monitoring for seismic protection and seismic hazard assessment in the town of Almaty, Kazakhstan ". The main objectives of the project are: the provision of technical assistance to the Institute of Seismology in retrofitting existing systems in Almaty seismological observations modern seismic equipment, the study of modern movements of the earth surface using satellite geodesy (GPS-observations), training of Kazakh specialists work related to the supervision of the new equipment, processing and analysis of information received.

Equipping of seismological observations modern seismic equipment.


Seismological observation system in Almaty consists of three complementary networks:

· Teleseismic network

· Regional network

· Local Area Network.

The teleseismic network. provides the monitoring of seismic events in Kazakhstan and neighboring countries. Magnitudny level - 4.0 and above. All the items were mostly equipped with seismometers of SK and SKD. Since 2001, paragraph Medeo installed new broadband seismometer CMG-3T, Kazakhstan provided by the Japanese government.

The regional Network provides the registration of earthquakes with the power of more than 7 classes that took place in Almaty Region and adjacent regions. As registries are mainly seismometers type SCM. At five points (Kurt, Maytyube, Almaty, Chushkaly and Turgen) since 2002 they have been replaced by new digital seismic complexes based registrars such QUANTERRA Q720, Kazakhstan provided by the Japanese government.

The local Network provides the monitoring of strong movements. On the territory of Almaty until 2000 operated a total of 8 points. Seismic vibrations made on paper, the equipment was physically and morally outdated.

Since 2000, a new network of strong ground motion is operated in the city of Almaty. Observation points have a sets of digital accelerograph wide dynamic range "ALTUS-ETNA". As noted above, the equipment provided by the Japanese government.

The GPS Network to monitor the modern movement of the earth's surface

Observations of the modern movementsof crust using the GPS, started in Kazakhstan in 1992. The field equipment such TRIMBLE 4000 SSE, provided by the United States has been used.. The resulting material is not processed in Kazakhstan, but in the center of the geodynamic polygon Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (Bishkek). Worked at the Institute of Seismology of RK received, usually 8-10 months.

The Japanese government has made delivery of the 4 sets of equipment for GPS-observations in the field.

Support of the processing and analysis of seismic data computer technology

In order to automate the processing and analysis of seismic materials produced in the territory of Kazakhstan, the Government of Japan provided a wide range of programs. The following is a list of program funds:

· Programs of the static and dynamic analysis to model the response of buildings and structures

· The package SAC-2000, is designed to detect and process records of earthquakes recorded by the equipment Quantera Q 730

· Software Package "Strong Motion Analyst" for processing strong motion records

· Operating System LINUX

· Graphical package GMT for mapping and scheduling

· Programs calculate hypocenter HIPKAZAK

· Program definition of fault KAZAKMEC

Education and training of Kazakhstani specialists in the field of seismology

The aim of training the specialists of the Institute is to learn  and introduce the Japanese technology for  the improvement of the system of seismic monitoring, the development of new hardware and software processing of the experimental materials obtained  at the territory of Kazakhstan.

There were two directions in the training of specialists: by training in Japan and through the consultations of Japanese experts. Training of specialists of the Institute in Japan were a  long-term (one-year) and short term (up to one month) as well.

The yearly training of the Kazakh specialists has been held in Ttsukuba, where the training center JICA is located. They mastered computer technology of processing and interpretation of seismic materials in connection with the assessment of seismic risk and earthquake prediction. The knowledge gained Kazakh specialists commonly use in their daily work. During 2000-2003, 10 specialists of the Institute have been trained in Japan.

 

Employee training was conducted by consulting the Japanese experts in the field in areas of study:

· Improvement of the seismic monitoring

· Collection of GPS-data to improve the system of seismic monitoring

· Analysis and control the collection of seismic and GPR-data.

To implement the project were sent to Japan to two long-term experts (Coordinator) - Dr. Hideaki Komiyama and Professor Ken Sudo. In addition to the organizational work done by Dr. Hideaki Komiyama a local network with an Internet connection, organized and held two international workshops, organized English courses. Professor Ken Sudo organized a series of lectures on seismology and workshops for the staff of Young Scientists of the Institute.

During the term of the project, nine experts trained the specialists of the Institute, in addition, the Japanese side has sent six research groups to prepare the workshop.


In assisting the Government of Japan,  the Institute of Seismology has trained:

· 10 people through training in Japan

· 18 people have been trained on their work places in modern methods of work, the use of software in relation to obtained  seismic and GPS-equipment

· More than 25 people have improved their knowledge of English

· Employees get access to the resources of the World Wide Web

The main results of the project are:

· The conditions and infrastructure to improve the quality of seismic hazard assessment and prediction of earthquakes in Almaty region are created.

· The conditions and infrastructure for updating the map of seismic microzoning territory of Almaty are created.

· The conditions for the improvement of building codes, urban development plans, the development  a plan of action during strong earthquakes and, ultimately, for reducing  the seismic risk are created.