Sunday, 17 January, 2021

Experimental base

Experimental base, which allows for basic and applied research in the field of seismology, represented by a network of integrated geophysical observatories, seismic, hydro-geochemical, hydrodynamic stations, geophysical observation points, seysmobiologicheskih hospitals, chemical laboratory, a system of data collection and transmission of information, the local processing center, data banks.

System seismological and earthquake forecast in Kazakhstan is developing in four levels. The first level - Teleseismic observation network. It is a seismological observatory "Obninsk" Russia is integrated into the global seismological network.

The second - a regional system of seismological observations throughout seismic Kazakhstan. It is designed to provide research materials to develop maps seysmoraynirovaniya and long-term forecast of earthquakes. Third - local forecast systems developed in the areas of expected earthquakes on long-term prognosis, as well as major oil and gas fields and areas of nuclear power plant construction. The main problem at which point the local observing systems - collecting data to support medium-and short-term earthquake prediction. Fourth - system engineering and seismic observations in the major cities and towns with digital strong motion stations ALTUS-ETNA.

The system combines the teleseismic observations supporting seismic stations in Almaty, Shymkent, Taraz, Taldykorgan, Semipalatinsk, equipped with a long-period for detecting distant earthquakes. Teleseismic network provides a representative recording of earthquakes with M 3.5 on the territory of Kazakhstan.

The system of regional seismological observations includes seismic stations and global positioning satellite measurements of GPS. Network of seismic stations provides a level of registration of representative earthquake energy class to 6.5 - in the middle of the ridges and Kungey Zailiysky Tau, to 7.5 - across the northern Tien Shan and Dzungaria to 8.0 - in the south of Kazakhstan and by 9 , 5 - in the territory of East Kazakhstan. According to quadripartite agreement between the U.S., Russia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan in 1992 were developed global positioning satellite measurement methods GPS. Kazakhstan part of the landfill includes more than 150 items, most of which is confined to the mountainous part of the study area.

Local system of seismic observations deployed in the Northern Tien Shan and Dzungaria. Most full of it to the Registration Desk in Almaty where highlighted several areas of long-term earthquake prediction. In this system, involving almost all the methods of observations: seismic, geophysics, gidrogeodinamika, hydrogeochemistry, deformograph and seysmobiologiya.

Seismic points are equipped with digital recording systems and data collection IDS-24, GPS-18 Swiss-made with a dynamic range of 130 dB. The system includes a set of exact time GPS, a computer with software that allows you to view data, to produce detailed mathematical analysis, and data transfer channels.

In the local system, significant development of geophysical methods. They include geomagnetic (module and component), electrotelluric observation and research on the electromagnetic radiation.

Network of geomagnetic observations consists of 17 points. Installed on all high-precision proton magnetometer CF-1 digital magnetic recording, and the four points absolute component magnetometers CF-03, to measure the modulus of the total magnetic field vector and its vertical and horizontal components, the horizontal angle of inclination angle of inclination of the vector and a full vector. The measurement - 1 minute.

Electrotelluric observations are made at seven locations in the ground-based version in which the measuring electrodes are placed in pits. Length spacing of 50-200 meters. Since 1997, five points commissioned borehole installation might better exclude the effect of weathering. When installing the measuring cables used in the body of a well laid wells bentonite clay, which makes good contact of the electrodes with the breed, safety measurement cables, as well as directly. In both types of systems used modern digital multichannel recorder ISU-3. The measurement - 1 minute.

Hydrogeochemical and Hydrogeodynamic studies of other monitoring techniques generate a significant amount of recorded parameters, a variety of apparatus used, methods of registration (from visual to automatic) and the measurement resolution. Observations of changes in the parameters of nitrogen thermal waters are held at 12 locations. Depths of wells range from 200 to 2500 meters. All monitored 24 parameters. This dynamic, physical, chemical, ion-salt and gas composition. Most of the settings are registered and is directly determined by the observation point. The gas composition is determined in the central chemical laboratory, that also made periodic monitoring of the quality of the observation points on chemical analyzes.

In hydrogeological observation is an issue of ensuring The registering and analytical instruments. Part of the problem is solved by its own development. To this end, upgraded and refurbished gazootbornikami more effective instruments for measuring radon emanation. Developed and operated by ultrasonic level and flow. Accordingly, these devices are designed to block registration with solid-state memory. The next step is to automate the development of hydro-geochemical observation "Workstation hydrogeochemical operator station (AWS)" on a personal computer.

Deformograficheskie tiltmetric and observations have a limited distribution, explained by the lack of appropriate equipment. Deformograficheskie observations are made on the "Medeo", "Kurt", "Turgenev" in special tunnels driven in the rocks and in terms of having a U-shape. The galleries feature precision quartz deformograph who work more than 20 years. Given the reliability and uniqueness of these devices for further use with the integration into the modern means of information transmission and processing system was developed pickup and recording data in digital form. Tiltmetric observations are made on the "Turgenev" and "Kurt" shtolnevymi tiltmeters "NS-1", to convert digital recording instrument "GIP-3", and on the "Medeo" automatic seismic station tiltmetric "ASNA" with analog recording tape on a chart. Organized svetodalnomernye observations at two fixed sites located on the "Turgenev" and "Lime". At each site equipped with four multi-directional measurement lines, linear measurements are performed with laser precision EDM SP-2. Measurement lines are located in the cross trending faults of the first order and the length ranges from 621 to 3468 meters. As noted above, in research to identify global tectonic movements used satellite geodesy (GPS). GPS network operation conducted jointly with the Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences. The measurements on the network are performed once a year.

Seysmobiologicheskie observations are conducted in four specialized biostatsionarah and seismological station "Medeo". The species composition of animals is quite wide and includes three species of birds, four - reptiles, two - and two fish - mammals. For registration of motor activity of snakes is designed and manufactured device "Yes, one." The works on automating registration buzzer budgies.